Title : Probiotic and prebiotic effect of breast milk on baby nutrition
Breast milk contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, water and minerals necessary to perfectly meet the nutritional and immunological needs of the baby, as well as various bioactive components necessary for the health of the baby. The protective properties of breast milk baby against infectious diseases is due to its anti-infective effect. This effect is because bioactive components such as immunoglobulins, immune cells, antimicrobial acids, polyamines, oligosaccharides, lysocystic, lactoferrin in colostrum. Although the formation of microbiota in the human body begins in the prenatal period, it is mainly shaped in the first three years of life and diet plays an important role in the baby's development of a healthy microbiota. Breast milk is critical for the formation of a healthy gut microbiota, especially in the first months of life. Recent studies have shown that human milk, far from being a sterile liquid, constitutes an excellent and constant source of commensal bacteria for the infant gut. These bacteria may also play an important role in reducing the incidence and severity of infectious diseases in breastfed children. Among the bacteria found in human milk, those belonging to the species Staphylococcus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. are the most common. There is a growing interest in Lactobacillus species found in breast milk, such as L. gasseri, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum and L. fermentum, because they are considered potentially probiotic species. Probiotics are defined as living microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient amounts, provide a benefit on the host (FAO/WHO, 2006). Healthy microbiota development in the baby is associated with the health of the mother's microbiota. Especially the first 3-4 months are critical in microbiota development. Bacteria that pass through the vaginal, fecal, and skin microbiota of the mother are the first microorganisms to colonize in the newborn's gut. In the literature, the effect of microorganisms in breast milk on the development of the baby's microbiota has been shown by various studies. The transmission of breast milk microbiota to the baby occurs as a result of very complex and developed processes. The studies were compared with breast milk and microorganisms in mother and baby's feces and it was determined that some bacterial species were common. These studies have revealed that there is a vertical transfer of bacteria from mother to baby through breastfeeding, which in this case affects the development of the baby's intestinal microbiota. In addition, animal studies have shown that the bacteria in breast milk have the potential to colonize the baby's intestines. Oligosaccharides in breast milk play a key role in the formation of baby’s gut microbiota by showing prebiotic effects. Studies have determined that the number of Bifidobacterium spp. in infant feces they examined at the end of the one-month lactation period showed a complete correlation with the oligosaccharide content of breast milk. With this feature, breast milk is thought to be the first and most important prebiotic. The oligosaccharides and microbiota found in human milk are of particular interest because of their effects on the baby's gut microbiota and potential long-term health. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the results of the prebiotic and probiotic effects of breast milk by reviewing the studies examining the effect on microbiota development.
Audience Take Away:
- Breast milk composition and the effect of breast milk on infant health will be evaluated. Information about the probiotics and prebiotics contained in breast milk will be gained. For a healthy life, the importance of intestinal microbiota in the first stage of life and the contribution of breast milk will be learned.
- This information will be a guide for the work of the audience on these issues.
- Idea will be obtained about the studies to identify probiotic bacteria from breast milk and to find use of these bacteria industrially in the production of baby food.
- In the preparation of baby food formulas, it will be guided for gaining probiotic and prebiotic effects similar to breast milk.